Controversial Debate: Are There Still Mountain Lions in Appalachia?

    Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency trail cam photo of mountain lion.

    Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency trail cam photo of mountain lion.

    For countless millennia cougars, also known as mountain lions, pumas, painters and panthers, roamed the Appalachian Mountains of North America.  Tales abound of early settlers witnessing panthers drop from virgin forest tree limbs onto unsuspecting individuals below.

    Being the fourth-largest cat on the planet, cougars prowled from Alaska to the southern tip of South America, and nearly all places in between, including the entire Appalachian region.  Growing to the length of 9 ft. and having the ability to leap as far as 15 ft., the intimidating cry of the painter “said to sound like a wailing woman” haunted the dreams of early English inhabitants of the New World.

    Indeed, the modern forests of Appalachia are almost unrecognizable compared to the majestic, dense and unimaginably dark woodland that greeted the first white settlers only a handful of centuries ago.

    One of the first men to write of the mountain’s ancient forests was a young surveyor by the name of George Washington.

    While plotting the Kanawha River, he wrote in his journal, “Just as we came to the hills, we met with a Sycamore… of a most extraordinary size, it measuring three feet from the ground, forty-five feet round, lacking two inches; and not fifty yards from it was another, thirty-one feet round.”

    Unfortunately, by 1920, the region, which is now celebrated for its natural beauty, had been reduced to an abhorrent desert, more closely resembling a bombed wasteland than a mountain wonderland described as being “almost heaven.”

    For the first time in its history, the Appalachian Mountains were viewed as an eyesore. One visiting writer described the area as “a monotonous panorama of destruction.”

    A victim of this widespread deforestation, as well as intense hunting, was the region’s mountain lion.

    Like the Native Americans who were driven westward a century earlier, the panthers of modern-day Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Carolina and West Virginia, were either pushed west or died at the end of a rifle barrel or due to the scarcity of food.

    By the middle of the 1900’s, nearly all cougars in the entire Appalachian region had vanished altogether.

    In 2011, the federal Fish and Wildlife Service declared the Eastern Cougar to extinct, recommending that the animal be removed from the nation’s endangered species list.

    Interestingly, a lingering question still remained: are there really no more wild cougars left in the Appalachian Mountains?

    These days, if you ask the vast majority of state forestry employees serving in the region, they will most likely laugh and scoff at the notion of mountain lions still roaming the hills of Tennessee or West Virginia; comparing the sightings to those of Big Foot or the Loch Ness Monster.

    Yet, for decades, tells have abounded among hunters, mountain men and farmers of the region who swear they have had run-ins with the large cats the experts say no longer exists.  Even as a young child, I recall hearing the men gathered inside Moore’s Gun Shop in Max Meadows, Virginia, debating the validity of local claimants who said they saw these massive kitties slinking through the Southwest Virginia mountains.

    Scientists counter that most likely these sightings are the result of individuals mistaking bobcats for mountain lions, leading to a regional controversy and conspiracy theories that are comparable to the Kennedy assassination or the blue and black… I mean white and gold… dress that floated around Facebook a few years back.

    Though Eastern Cougars were officially declared extinct, dozens of reported sightings throughout the Appalachian Mountains have continued for years.

    Just weeks after the Federal government declared Eastern Cougars to be extinct, a cougar was killed by a car in Connecticut.  A New York Times article concluded that the cat was not an eastern cougar,  but a wild cougar from South Dakota: “Wildlife officials, who at first assumed the cat was a captive animal that had escaped its owners, examined its DNA and concluded that it was a wild cougar from the Black Hills of South Dakota. It had wandered at least 1,500 miles before meeting its end at the front of an S.U.V. in Connecticut. That is one impressive walkabout.”

    In September 2015, the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency shared a trail camera photo of a passing mountain lion.  The confirmation took place in Obion County, which is in western Tennessee, approximately 80 miles west of Nashville and only a few miles east of the Mississippi River on the border of Kentucky.

    In June 2016 panic visited the Virginia mountains as a 911 dispatcher reported over the radio that a hiker had been attacked by a mountain lion along the Appalachian Trail in Augusta County, Virginia.

    This report was quickly thwarted, however, by a United States National Park Service ranger, who wrote the following to Appalachian Magazine, “I was first on scene, and interviewed the victim, then looked for the animal. Based on all the statements from those involved, this was a bobcat. I have been trying to correct the record on this for two days now. The only time the word ‘mountain lion’ entered the conversation was when second hand information was repeated by a dispatcher, then picked up on scanners.”

    Since 1970, no fewer than 121 mountain lion sightings have been reported to officials in 29 different Virginia counties alone.

    Regardless of whether the increase in sightings can be attributed to a resurgence of what was believed to be an extinct cat or an invasion of Western Cougars, it is becoming increasingly clear to many that mountain lions do exist in the wild in the Appalachian Mountains.

    Though the odds of you actually coming across a mountain lion while hiking in the Appalachian Mountains are incredibly slim, should you be so unfortunately fortunate, experts give the following advice:

    STOP. Do not run, Do not play dead.  Do not make any sudden moves.  Maintain eye contact and stand tall, looking big and speaking firmly. Throw something NEAR the lion…

    Also, you might want to take a picture when safe… because spotting a mountain lion in these parts may be met with the same level of skepticism as making public the UFO you and your buddy spotted that one night!

    Like articles like this? Then you would love Appalachian Magazine’s Mountain Voice: A Collection of Memories, Histories, and Tall Tales of Appalachia!  Click here to check out the book on Amazon!

    Click LIKE to share this article with your friends on Facebook!


    1. Greetings. We live near the capital city of Charleston, West Virginia. I don’t know if man is taking up residence where the wildlife once lived freely, or if they are following scents of food and garbage, being cooked and thrown away, respectively. During the last several years, people in the Charleston area have been dealing (or trying not to) with black bears getting into their garbage and trash. Also, in Kanawha County, my son, daughter-in-law, and grandson lives in a very nice home in a very nice neighborhood, and almost every night, they hear coyotes making that soulful moaning howl. I love and appreciate animals, however, when a family feels endangered, one doesn’t take time to look on a list to see if it is okay to shoot or not. ~

    2. I saw one behind my house. It was probably late 80’s early 90’s. It was unmistakably a mountain lion. This happened in Marion county.

    3. Told many that I had seen a mountain loin in Pocahontas County Wv about 4 yrs ago but everyone tried to say it had to be a bobcat. Bobcats arn’t 4′ long with a longer tail.

    4. I have seen a moutaineer lion twice here in Ritchie county. NOT BUT A MONTH Ago MY Husband Came AND GOT ME To COME Listen To A Noise, It STARTED IN Front Of OUR HOME AND Was HEADED east. It was spine chilling. We looked up a mountain lion sound and it was very similar. Said it was a mountain lion mating call. It was moving really fast

    5. My mom was born at Panther, WV 1916. Lots of family stories about panthers including coming face to face with a rare white panther. My gramps came.around a bend as he was walking home via the.railroad tracks. The panther.was coming the oposite direction. The panther turned and.ran. my grandpa.turned.and.ran.the oposite direction.

    6. We had a cougar killed by a car here in central MO. They were not suppose to benhere…well…now.we.know.they

    7. Interesting story. I am from Ritchie County and had moved back home for a time in 2007. I have seen a cougar with Cubs in Doddridge County and one crossing RT.50 in Harrison County late at night. I know they are there.

    8. We live in Bedford County VA. about 10 miles east of Roanoke. Locals had cameras set up on trails animals use. They caught a Cougar in one of the shots. Several others have heard and seen evidence of it around the mts and valleys.

    9. I looked at the Facebook picture and there is no doubt in my mind that is a mountain lion. There is also no doubt in my mind that the photo is fake.

      The spruce trees in the mirror of the truck are very thick yet not one to be found in the picture with the cat.

      The cat appears to be walking down the bank without a care in the world. Yet the truck is almost on top of it.

      With all of the smartphones out there it will only be a matter of time before we have a legitimate photograph. Unfortunately this is not one.

    10. The wife and I saw one late night in Randolph County on Cheat Mountain in late fall 2005. It was crouched down in the road tending to a nice fat rabbit it had just “obtained”. It was unmistakably a mountain lion; not a bobcat as the DNR officer I spoke to kept insisting (I’ve lived in WV my entire life, I know the difference between a 20lb, spotted bobcat with no tail and a 90+lb, brown panther with a wonderfully long, elegant tail).

      After speaking with the conservation officer about it and ultimately being treated like idiots, we never mentioned it to another soul; just kept it as our special memory that we know is 100% true.

      I’m really glad that someone else in WV has seen one, they truly are a beautiful “big cat”; magical.

    Comments are closed.